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Public Document 



No. 98 



SIXTH ANNUAL EEPOET 



OF THE 



Commissioner of Animal Industry. 



1917. 



Fob the Year ending November 30, 1917. 







BOSTOft! ' ; 

WRIGHT & ?OT$&R l->RWtiNG CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
32 DERNE STREET. 




'A 



Publication of this Document 

approved by the 
Supervisor of Administration. 



■A 

1 




®tje Commontoealtt) of Jtta00act)U0ette- 



Department of Animal Industry, 
Boston, Dec. 1, 1917. 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives. 

In accordance with the provisions of section 4, chapter 608, 
Acts of 1912, I have the honor, as Commissioner of Animal 
Industry, to present the report of the Department's work for 
the year ending Nov. 30, 1917. 

The Department of Animal Industry is charged with the 
duty of inspection and examination of animals within the 
Commonwealth; the quarantining and killing when necessary 
of animals affected with, or which have been exposed to, 
contagious disease; the burial or other disposal of their car- 
casses; the cleansing and disinfection of districts, buildings or 
places where contagion exists or has existed. It is also charged 
with the duty of tuberculin testing all neat cattle shipped 
from other States to Massachusetts, unless the same are in- 
tended for immediate slaughter, or are accompanied by a 
record of test made by a veterinarian approved by the live- 
stock official of the State from which they are shipped, and 
the record is accepted by the Commissioner on arrival of the 
animals. 

The control and eradication of contagious diseases among 
live stock constitute an important economic factor in the 
material prosperity of many citizens of the Commonwealth. 
They are also very necessary to successful agriculture, and are 
closely related to the maintenance and protection of the public 
health, for the reason that many diseases affecting animals 
are communicable to the human subject. Our dependence upon 
domestic animals for food material calls attention to the im- 
portance of the Department's work in reducing the number 
of cases of bovine tuberculosis, the prevention of diseases 
among swine, the repression of glanders in horses, of rabies in 



4 ANIMAL [NDUSTRY. [Jan. 

dogs, and of various other diseases common to animal and man, 
and in the present emergency of war it has a special relation 

to the conservation of food. 

The prevalence of contagious disease among animals whose 
carcasses if healthy would be utilized for food operates to 
reduce the available supply, and when we consider that the 
carcasses of half a million animals were condemned in the 
United States during the year 1916 as unfit for human food, 
we realize what a large part contagious disease among live 
stock plays in increasing its cost. If tuberculosis affecting 
cattle and cholera affecting swine (taking these diseases as 
examples) were entirely stamped out, half a million carcasses 
would be yearly added to the food supply, together with many 
others whose production the saving of that large number of 
animals would make possible. 

Early in the present year the relation of our work to the 
successful prosecution of the great war was realized. It seemed 
that one great problem to be solved in this country was the 
production of food in sufficient quantities not only to maintain 
our own people at home and our armies to be sent abroad, 
but also the production of immense additional quantities for 
exportation to our allied countries, necessary to them in the 
maintenance of their armies and their civilian populations, 
which already w r ere being restricted in their use of many 
different kinds of food, and especially of animal food. 

Our conception of this Department's duties in this emer- 
gency was that of being especially watchful for the appearance 
of any condition operating against the continued propagation 
oi food-producing animals in this Commonwealth, and also of 
doing everything possible to increase the amount of animal 
food products usually available under normal conditions. To 
this end, therefore, we considered that our activities should 
be specially employed in the carrying out of measures for the 
prevention of diseases in live stock, and in persistent control 
of such contagious diseases as were then prevalent. 

Beef and pork being the kinds of animal food the conser- 
vation of which is especially necessary at this time, the De- 
partment has been striving to improve the conditions under 
which neat cattle and swine are kept, and to control and if 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 5 

possible eradicate the diseases most prevalent among them, 
namely, tuberculosis affecting neat cattle and cholera affecting 
swine. 

The prevalence of contagious or infectious abortion in Mas- 
sachusetts herds is of very great concern to owners of cattle 
which are kept for the production of milk and for the raising 
of pure-bred stock. It is estimated by the Bureau of Animal 
Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture that 
this disease with its attendant conditions is costing the cattle 
owners of the country more than $20,000,000 a year by de- 
crease in the amount of dairy products and the non-production 
of animals. In economic importance it is second only to 
tuberculosis, and investigation as to its prevalence in Massa- 
chusetts discloses the fact that we are suffering in common 
with other sections of the country. I think considerable 
progress is, however, being made in the study of the cause 
and development of this disease, and of the many correlating 
physical conditions affecting or influencing its development. 
Effective measures in prevention seem at the present time to 
be limited to regular and thorough disinfection of barns and 
places where susceptible animals are kept; antiseptic treat- 
ment of pregnant animals approaching, during and following 
parturition; destruction of all material which might carry in- 
fection; and prophylactic treatment of all male and female 
animals at the time of breeding. This Department is pre- 
pared at the present time to make laboratory examinations 
of material submitted for the purpose of diagnosis, and is 
experimenting in a small way in the production of a vaccine 
for use in preventive treatment. Our work in this direction, 
however, has not 1 yet been sufficiently extensive to warrant an 
unqualified opinion as to the effectiveness of the product. The 
United States Bureau of Animal Industry is continuing its 
investigation as to the cause, mode of dissemination and proper 
treatment of this condition, and we have reason to believe 
that its continued work in this direction will finally result in 
finding additional practical methods of combating this menace 
to the dairy industry of the country. 

The importance and necessity of a laboratory organized and 
equipped for the special work of this Department has very 



6 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

plainly presented itself during the past year. The develop- 
ment of the Department's work in connection with contagious 
diseases of animals has led us into many different kinds of 
special work which can only be done in a laboratory. Many 
conditions arise with which we are unfamiliar, prompt diag- 
noses of which are important in order that plans to be followed 
in disease control ma} r be properly formulated. The services 
of a trained bacteriologist and pathologist under direct super- 
vision of the Commissioner should be promptly available in 
such cases. We are fortunate in having among our agents 
one who has had special training along this line, and who, 
although having direct supervision of an important branch of 
the work of the Department, has nevertheless been able to 
serve us efficiently in the capacity mentioned. A wide ex- 
perience has rqade him perfectly familiar with field conditions, 
and on this account he is especially valuable in this work. 
A room has been kindly furnished us by the Harvard Medical 
School, rent free, in which more or less work has been accom- 
plished during the past few months. We have been able not 
only to examine many specimens submitted for diagnosis by 
agents of the Department and private veterinarians, but also 
to prepare special biological products, such as tuberculin and 
mallein, for use in special emergency cases, and to do more or 
less experimental work looking to the increased value of the 
Department's efforts in the control and eradication of disease. 
It seems to me that the time is at hand when the importance 
and value of this particular branch of our service must be 
recognized and its development provided for. 

The routine laboratory work of the Department in con- 
nection with diagnosis of rabies in dogs and glanders in horses 
is now being done for us by the State Department of Health. 
That department, however, while rendering valuable service in 
our routine work, is not equipped to render the special emer- 
gency service referred to above. 

As it frequently happens that no person is acting as in- 
spector of animals in a certain city or town, owing to death, 
resignation, or failure on the part of town officials to nomi- 
nate, and during such period an outbreak of contagious disease 
occurs, an emergency thereby arises which requires the serv- 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 7 

ices of a quarantining officer. I therefore recommend that 
the authority, powers and duties of the Commissioner, his 
agents and assistants, be enlarged to include the authority, 
powers and duties of an inspector of animals, in order that 
the public health and live-stock interests of the Common- 
wealth may be at all times protected. 

An amendment of the section of the law relating to the 
quarantining of animals is recommended, particularly refer- 
ring to the requarantining of animals which have been released 
on order of the Commissioner. An animal is released from 
quarantine only after careful examination by one of the De- 
partment's veterinarians, whose report is that in his opinion 
it is not affected with the disease for which it was quarantined. 
In order that owners of animals which have been so released 
may not be soon again subjected to the inconvenience and 
expense of quarantine restrictions, my recommendation is that 
the amendment shall provide that an animal so released shall 
not be requarantined during a period of thirty days imme- 
diately following such release, except upon order of the Com- 
missioner. 

Section 28 of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws, as amended, 
defines what diseases shall be considered contagious. Owing 
to the rapid progress in medical and sanitary science, in my 
opinion " contagious diseases," instead of being listed by com- 
mon names applied thereto, should be defined as any conta- 
gious, infectious or communicable disease. If scientific investi- 
gation should suggest a change in the present nomenclature 
of communicable diseases, no act would then necessarily have 
to be passed in order that the wording of the law might be 
in strict accordance with the best usage of scientific terms. 

The regulation of the transportation of interstate cattle to 
Massachusetts is one requiring constant attention by agents 
of the Department in order that violation of such regulations 
by unscrupulous persons may be prevented. In the majority 
of cases interstate shipments are made strictly in accordance 
with the provisions of the Department's orders relating thereto, 
the greater portion of the people engaged in cattle traffic being 
at the present time very well informed as to the requirements. 
Occasionally, however, we find persons engaged in the business 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

of trading cattle and driving them over the State line who 
have persistently violated our regulations, although well in- 
formed regarding them, and it then becomes necessary to take 
legal action against the offenders. During the past year we 
have adopted at certain border points severe restrictive meas- 
ures applying to this traffic, on account of information re- 
ceived regarding violations, and in two instances it was found 
advisable to prosecute suspected individuals. In these two 
instances convictions of the guilty parties were readily obtained 
and substantial fines were imposed by the court, the result in 
both cases being an immediate and strict compliance with the 
orders and regulations of the Department.. 

The holding of the Ea stern States Exposition in Springfield 
in October of this year was considered as of great advantage 
to our live-stock interests, and the management was early 
informed that this Department would render every assistance 
possible in making the exposition a success. Two agents of 
the Department were detailed for duty at the exposition 
grounds to assist in the identification and examination of 
horses and cattle shipped interstate to and from the expo- 
sition. The same service has been rendered at other large 
exhibitions of live stock, notably at Brockton and Worcester. 
Too much cannot be said as to the good effect of these exhi- 
bitions of high-grade animals. They are of great educational 
value to all observers, of great convenience to intending pur- 
chasers of pure-bred cattle, sheep and hogs, and must be 
considered a very great aid to the progressive development of 
our agricultural and live-stock interests. No cases of con- 
tagious disease appeared at these exhibitions, and the care 
of the animals and the sanitary conditions maintained were in 
every instance found to be above criticism, indicating very 
efficient management of these enterprises. 

Tuberculosis. 

The prevalence of tuberculosis in Massachusetts cattle has 
been extensive and widespread for many years, and until re- 
cently efforts to reduce its yearly toll have been somewhat 
discouraging. The finding of large numbers of tubercular ani- 
mals every succeeding year, notwithstanding the killing of 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 9 

many cases the year previous, proved that the general situ- 
ation was not improving; that no substantial progress was 
being made in eradication of the disease. 

The law provides that tuberculin cannot be used as a diag- 
nostic agent on Massachusetts cattle except at request of 
owner. It therefore seemed necessary to advance to a higher 
efficiency the methods available for the purpose of diagnosis, 
to improve if possible the annual inspection of bovine animals 
which is made by town and city inspectors, and to make a 
more general application of the rule of the Department re- 
quiring physical examination by competent men of cattle ex- 
posed to tuberculosis. 

Accordingly, in 1915 all agents of the Department engaged 
in the examination of quarantined animals were instructed, in 
the event of their finding tubercular animals in a herd, to 
immediately make a thorough physical examination of all the 
animals in the herd, and if any were found which could be 
suspected of disease to have them placed in quarantine and 
disposed of in accordance with our customary procedure. By 
these herd examinations additional cases have frequently been 
found which by former methods would not have been dis- 
covered, but would have remained as active centers of in- 
fection and continued to spread the disease. We have fre- 
quently found that a continuous prevalence of this infection 
has been maintained on certain premises for a long time. 
Tuberculous animals would be found at every successive visit 
to these premises, and eradication of disease at that point was 
not being accomplished. 

As a result, however, of our improved methods, especially 
the examination of every animal in herds from which a tuber- 
cular member had been removed, we already find a distinct 
improvement in the situation. This result could not reason- 
ably have been expected to appear until the changed methods 
had been in operation for a somewhat extended period, for 
the reason that the first effect would undoubtedly be an in- 
crease in the number of animals quarantined, as well as in 
the number finally disposed of as tubercular. 

Physical examinations have been made by Department agents 
this year of 14,027 bovine animals, an increase of 2,584 over 



in ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

the record of 1916, and notwithstanding the larger number 
examined a much smaller number were found suspected of 
disease. One thousand three hundred and eighty-two animals 
were put in quarantine this year, which, compared with 1,678 
quarantined in 1916, shows a decrease of 17 per cent. The 
record of suspected animals reported (not all of them quaran- 
tined) from all sources, namely, by owners, inspectors of 
animals, veterinarians and agents of the Department, shows 
also a marked decrease, 1,885 having been reported in 1916 
and 1,719 during 1917, a decrease of 8.8 per cent. 

Post-mortem examinations are held on all animals condemned 
and killed on account of being suspected of tuberculosis, and 
the record of such post-mortem examinations of Massachusetts 
cattle during 1917 shows a reduction of 10 per cent, in the 
number of positive cases found. Another study of our sta- 
tistics shows that whereas 12 per cent, of all cattle examined 
by Department agents during the year 1916 were found to 
be tubercular, that percentage this year has been reduced 
from 12 to 8, which certainly shows a rapid diminution in the 
prevalence of tuberculosis in the course of a single year among 
animals the majority of which have been examined physically. 

Considering the decrease in one year of 8.8 per cent, in the 
number of cases reported from all sources, the decrease of 17 
per cent, in the number of suspected animals quarantined, the 
decrease of approximately 10 per cent, in the number of cases 
found positive on post-mortem examination, and a reduction 
from 12 to 8 per cent, of cases found in the thousands of bovine 
animals examined by Department agents, I think it should be 
recognized that a marked improvement in the general situa- 
tion is already taking place. At the same time, these records 
lead us to believe that our methods of control within the lim- 
itations imposed by law have been distinctly improved, and 
that the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis is susceptible of a 
certain degree of limitation if careful and repeated physical 
examination is made by competent men of all cattle exposed 
to the disease. 

It is generally recognized by all scientific authorities that 
the tuberculin test carefully applied by competent veterina- 
rians is the most accurate method of determining whether or 
not an animal is affected with tuberculosis; that it will dis- 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 11 

close many cases not found by physical examination, and will 
reveal the existence of the disease in many animals not even 
suspected. The advantages of the tuberculin-test method of 
diagnosis are made use of by the Department in its Work of 
eradication of tuberculosis, although its use on Massachusetts 
cattle is limited by law to animals whose owners consent to 
its application, and to such as have been reported as tuber- 
culous on physical examination by a competent veterinarian. 
We find an increasing number of Massachusetts cattle owners 
requesting the application of the test to their herds by the 
Department, this service being rendered without charge. We 
find, also, that many more veterinarians than formerly are 
reporting results of tests made by them in a private capacity, 
and referring the cases of reacting animals to the Department 
for disposal. The Department tests all cattle arriving from 
other States at Brighton and all other points, which are not 
accompanied by a properly approved and satisfactory test 
record made in the State from which the animals are shipped, 
the testing of such interstate cattle being one of the important 
activities of the Department. 

In July of this year the United States Department of Agri- 
culture offered its assistance in the testing of pure-bred herds, 
in co-operation with agents detailed by our Department for 
the same service. This work, now being done by the United 
States Bureau of Animal Industry in co-operation with this 
Department, is directed toward the eradication of tuberculosis 
from the herds which supply breeding stock, and upon its 
successful accomplishment there is contemplated the establish- 
ment of a register or list of accredited herds of tuberculosis- 
free animals from which buyers may procure foundation stock 
without test at time of purchase, depending on certification by 
Federal authorities to the effect that the herd in question is 
not infected. 

All of the different agencies mentioned — namely, thorough 
annual inspection by local town and city inspectors, followed 
by quarantine of suspected cases; careful successive physical 
examinations by competent men of infected herds, followed by 
slaughter of clinical cases; tuberculin testing by Department 
agents and by private veterinarians, followed by slaughter of 
the animals reacting to the test, or by complete isolation or 



12 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

segregation; testing of all interstate cattle arriving at what- 
ever points, followed by the killing of those not passing the 
test; eradication of disease from pure-bred herds by Federal 
authorities working in co-operation with this Department — 
contribute to a record of decrease in the prevalence of tuber- 
culosis in Massachusetts herds. It is reasonable to predict 
that if these agencies are continued in force, and are efficiently 
and persistently applied, they will continue to lower the yearly 
toll of this insidious destroyer of animal life. 

Following are various tables showing the extent of the work 
of the Department in connection with the control of tubercu- 
losis in Massachusetts for the year ending Nov. 30, 1917: — 

Massachusetts Cattle. 

Cattle reported as diseased in 1916 disposed of in 1917, . 27 
Cattle reported as diseased during the year ending Nov. 30, 

1917, 1,719 

1,746 



Disposition. 

Quarantined. 

Reported by inspectors, Department agents, veterinarians, 

owners, etc. (20 reported in 1916, 1,382 in 1917), . . 1,402 

Condemned on physical examination (11 re- 
ported in 1916, 994 in 1917), .... 1,005 

Condemned on physical examination, no lesions, 10 

Permit to kill, lesions of tuberculosis found (3 

reported in 1916, 36 in 1917), .... 39 

Permit to kill, no lesions, 41 

Died before action could be taken (1 reported in 

1916, 30 in 1917), 31 

Released, not tubercular (5 reported in 1916,266 

in 1917), 271 

Awaiting action, 5 

Private Test. 

Reactors reported on private tests (2 reported in 1916, 

200 in 1917), 202 

Condemned on physical examination, ... 12 
Permit to kill, lesions found (2 reported in 1916, 

133 in 1917), 135 

Permit to kill, no lesions found, .... 22 

Died before action could be taken, ... 1 

Released showing no clinical symptoms, . . 32 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 13 



Voluntary Request. ■ 

Reacting to so-called " voluntary request" tests (5 tested 

in 1916, 111 in 1917), 116 

Permit to kill, lesions found (5 of 1916 test, 104 

of 1917), 109 

Permit to kill, no lesions found, .... 5 

Died before action taken, ..... 1 

Awaiting action, ....... 1 

United States Test. 

Reacting to test made under supervision of United States, 26 

Permit to kill, lesions found, 26 

1,746 

* 
The preceding table is a record of the actual disposition 
of cattle reported under the three headings of "quarantined 
animals," "reactors reported on private test," and "reactors 
found on so-called voluntary-request tests," while following is 
a tabulation of work actually accomplished under the voluntary- 
request test and reacting animals actually reported during the 
year 1917 by private veterinarians. The difference in the two 
tables referring to private tests is due to the fact that some 
of the cattle recorded in the 1916 report as being released 
were killed during 1917 on "permit to kill" form of warrants 
by request of the owners of the cattle, the cattle showing no 
clinical symptoms of disease. 

Voluntary Request. 

Premises on which tests were made, 28 

Number of animals tested, 561 

Number of animals tested more than once, 179 

Number of reactors, 151 

Disposition of Reactors. 

Killed, lesions found, 109 

Killed, no lesions found, 5 

Died, no post-mortem examination made, 1 

Killing order issued, not yet killed, 1 

Awaiting action, 35 

151 



14 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 



Reactors reported on Private Tests. 

Number of herds in which animals were reported, .... 92 

Number of animals tested, . . . 1,660 

Number of reactors, 382 

Disposition of Reactors. 

Disposed of by owner, no record of post-mortem findings, . . 109 

Condemned on physical examination, 12 

Died, no post-mortem examination made, 1 

Killed, lesions found, 125 

Killed, no lesions found, 7 

Showing no physical symptoms of tuberculosis, no record of dis- 
position, . . . . . . . 128 



382 

The following figures show the total number of cattle owned 
in Massachusetts examined or tested by agents of the Depart- 
ment, and the disposition of those found suspected of disease. 

Massachusetts Cattle examined by Agents. 

Physical examination (1,065 herds), 13,466 

Tuberculin tested, . 561 

14,027 

Number killed on physical examination, 1,044 

Number killed on tuberculin test, 109 

1,153 

Percentage of tubercular animals in total number physically ex- 
amined and tuberculin tested, 8 

Attention is called to the fact that a larger number of ani- 
mals have been examined than in 1916, and that the per- 
centage of tubercular animals found among them has been 
reduced from 12 to 8. This reduction in one year is especially 
noticeable, and shows that tuberculosis among bovine animals 
in Massachusetts is probably decreasing rapidly. 



1918.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



15 



Interstate Cattle. 

There were ten permits issued in 1916 for bringing cattle 
from out of the State which were not reported upon till 1917, 
and in addition there were 20 instances where animals brought 
in on permits were held and tested in 1917; the total number 
on these permits comprised 26 head tested before shipment, 
139 tested after arrival, 1 beef animal, 3 calves, and 2 Massa- 
chusetts animals that had been out of the State temporarily. 
These figures are included in the total given below. 



Cattle held from 1916 at Brighton, retested in 1917, . 34 

Cattle tested at the quarantine station at Brighton, . 12,215 
Cattle accepted ©n approved test made in other States: — 
Received at Brighton, ..... 1,164 
Received at other points, .... 4,045 

5,209 

Cattle tested by agents of the Department at points other 

than the quarantine station, 4,224 

Cattle awaiting test, 93 



21,775 



Disposition of Above Cattle. 
Brighton. 

Cattle reacting and killed, lesions found, . . 210 

Cattle reacting and killed, no lesions found, . 34 

Permit to kill, lesions found, .... 35 

Permit to kill, no lesions found, .... 22 

Cattle released as free from tuberculosis, . . 13,107 

Awaiting retest, 5 



13,413 



At Other Points. 

Cattle reacting and killed, lesions found, . . 91 

Cattle reacting and killed, no lesions found, . 8 

Permit to kill, lesions found, .... 11 

Permit to kill, no lesions found, .... 5 
Condemned, awaiting report of post-mortem 

examination, 7 

Cattle released as free from tuberculosis, . . 8,130 

Awaiting test or retest, 110 



8,362 



21,775 



16 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY, 



[Jan. 



There were 556 cattle at Brighton held for a second test, 
255 of which were later released. 

Of the dairy cattle received at Brighton and accepted on 
tests made in other States, <)72 came from New Hampshire, 
10 from Maine, 47 from Vermont and 135 from New York. 

The following statistics show in detail the record of inter- 
state cattle received at points in the State other than the 
quarantine stations: — 



Report of Cottle brought into State during the Year to Points Other than the 

Quarantine Stations. 

For dairy and breeding purposes, tested before shipment, 4,045 
For dairy and breeding purposes, tested after arrival, . 4,224 
For dairy and breeding purposes, awaiting test, . . 93 



Xeat cattle on which no test was required, classified as 
follows : — 

Cattle for immediate slaughter, 

Calves for immediate slaughter, 

Dairy calves under six months old, 

Cattle returned from out-of-State pastures, 

Died before test could be made, 

Returned from sales or exhibitions in other States, 

Returned from temporary stay in other States for 
other purposes, ' 

Remaining in State for brief periods onty, for breeding 
purposes, etc., 

For temporary stay at sales or exhibitions (at Spring- 
field 368, at other places 268), 



Total for all purposes, 



2,364 

3,471 

247 

535 

5 



76 



18 



34 



636 



8,362 



7,386 
15,748 



There are large slaughtering establishments at Haverhill, 
West Newbury and Springfield where Federal inspection of 
slaughtered animals is maintained, to which points cattle and 
calves for immediate slaughter can be shipped without special 
permit, record of which is not kept by this Department. 
There are on an average several thousand animals shipped to 
these points during the year. 

Of the animals brought into State for purpose of sale or 
exhibition, 368 went to the Eastern States Exposition at 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 17 

Springfield, which took place in October. There were also at 
this exposition 175 head of valuable cattle belonging to Massa- 
chusetts owners. All of the New England States were repre- 
sented at the exposition, and there were cattle from New 
York, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Iowa. The follow- 
ing breeds of cattle were represented: Milking Shorthorn, 
Holstein, Guernsey, Jersey, Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Shorthorn, 
Hereford, Angus and Fat Cattle. 

Nearly all of the total number of animals coming to points 
other than the quarantine stations came in on permits issued 
by the head of the Department; 528 head were brought in 
unaccompanied by permits, having been reported to the De- 
partment by railroad agents, local inspectors and others. Of 
this number,* 216 were accompanied by acceptable records of 
test, 179 were tested by agents of the Department, and the 
remainder were for immediate slaughter or other purpose not 
requiring test. 

There were 1,403 permits issued during the year for bring- 
ing cattle from other States to points outside of the quarantine 
stations. 

Forty-eight permits were issued allowing cattle to be brought 
into the State for exhibition purposes, and four allowing cattle 
to be returned from exhibition in other States. Nine permits 
were issued allowing cattle to be pastured in the State during 
the summer season; five permits were issued to persons living 
near the border line for returning cattle from out-of-State 
pastures from time to time during the season without being 
tested or tagged; and two permits were issued allowing oxen 
to be worked on the border line temporarily without test. 

One hundred and eighty-nine of the permits were not used, 
and eighteen on which no report had been received at the 
close of the year were carried over and will be included in the 
report of the next succeeding year. 

During the spring and early summer Massachusetts veteri- 
narians or agents of the Department tagged 871 head of cattle 
that were to be sent into other States for pasture during the 
season, mostly into New Hampshire. Tag numbers are kept 
on the files of the Department in order that these animals 
may be identified upon returning to their home State in the 



IS 



ANIMAL [NDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



fall. Many of them wore brought to the Brighton Stock- 
yards and released there; others were returned to premises of 
owners in other parts of the State. 

The Department keeps records of all animals received at the 
several quarantine stations; also the States from which neat 
cattle are shipped, as shown by the following figures: — 



Receipts of Stock at the Watertown Stockyards for the Year ending Nov. 30, 

1917. 



New Hampshire cattle, .... 


3,839 


Vermont cattle, 


5,476 


Massachusetts cattle, ..... 


664 


Calves, 


. . . . 21,752 


Sheep and lambs, 


1,557 


Swine, 


3,903 



Receipts of Stock at the New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company's 
Yards at Somerville for the Year ending Nov. 80, 1917. 

Maine cattle, 1,795 



New Hampshire cattle, 

Vermont cattle, 

Massachusetts cattle, 

Western cattle, . 

Canada cattle, . 

Calves, 

Sheep and lambs, 

Swine (at Squire's, 589,103; at North's, 545,000), 



2,605 

8,875 

92 

4,145 

2,390 

78,228 

217,103 

1,134,103 



Receipts of Stock at Brighton for the Year ending Nov. 30, 1917. 
Maine cattle, 9,810 



New Hampshire cattle, 
Vermont cattle, 
Massachusetts cattle, 
New York cattle, 
Western cattle, . 
Canada cattle, . 
Calves, 

Sheep and lambs, 
Swine, 



8,074 

5,562 

13,480 

13,261 

26,126 

148 

89,706 

7,932 

42,313 



Section 111 of chapter 75 of the Revised Laws, as amended 
by chapter 243 of the Acts of 1907, requires rendering com- 



1918.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



19 



panies to report to this Department cases of glanders, farcy 
or tuberculosis found by them, and the information thus fur- 
nished is of considerable value in bringing to the attention of 
the Department cases of these diseases which otherwise would 
not be known. A table of reports of rendering companies 
follows : — 



Reports of Rendering Companies. 






Rendering Companies. 


m 

u 
O 

P< 
°i 
M 

o 

S 
3 


<*4 
O 

oo 

V 

oo 

03 

o 


O 
02 

m 

03 . 

02 

<t-i O 
03 

s © 


Number of cases of 
Glanders not pre- 
viously reported. 


Number of cases of 
Tuberculosis not 
previously reported. 


W. H. Abbott, Holyoke 


7 


7 


- 


- 


- 


Ayer Rendering Company, 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


C. S. Bard, Haverhill, .... 


2 


1 


- 


1 


- 


Butchers' Rendering Company, Fall River, 


4 


1 


3 


- 


- 


Home Soap Company, Millbury, 


25 


14 


37 


- 


1 


Lowell Rendering Company, 


10 


2 


13 


- 


- 


A. G. Markham, Springfield, 


2 


2 


- 


- 


- 


James E. McGovern, Andover, . 


26 


52 


15 


- 


- 


Muller Brothers, Cambridge, 


17 


27 


- 


1 


- 


William H. Nankervis, Marlborough, 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


New Bedford Extractor Company, . 


5 


5 


- 


- 


- 


New England Rendering Company, 

Brighton. 
P. J. O'Donnell & Son, Woonsocket, R. I., 


12 
1 


20 
1 


1 


— 


- 


Parmenter & Polsey Fertilizer Company, 

Peabbdy. 
R. & B. Tallow Company, Saugus, . 


15 


5 


12 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Rand & Byam, Charlestown, 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


N. Roy & Son, South Attleborough, 


10 


1 


5 


3 


1 


N. Roy, Jr., Fall River 


25 


21 


28 


1 


- 


Sherborn Rendering Company, . - . 


2 


1 


3 


- 


- 


Springfield Rendering Company, 


4 


8 


- 


- 


- 


N. Ward Company, Boston, 


34 


81 


3 


3 


- 


Whitman & Pratt Rendering Company, 

North Chelmsford. 
S. Winter Company, Brockton, 


20 
3 


5 

4 


12 


- 


3 


Worcester Rendering Company, 


5 


6 


- 


- 


- 


Wunsch Manufacturing Company, Paw- 
tucket, R. I. 


2 


2 


- 


- 


- 




235 


270 


132 


9 


5 



20 



ANIMAL [NDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



For several years, at the request of the United States De- 
partment of Commerce and Labor, a report of the receipts of 
all live stock at Boston has been sent to Washington each 
month. The following table shows the receipts by months for 
the past year: — 



Receipts of Lire Stock at the Stockyards in Boston and Vicinity for Twelve 

Months ending Nov. 30, 1917. 



For Month of — 


Cattle. 


Calves. 


Sheep . 


Swine. 


1 
Horses. 


December, 


10,137 


9,893 


18,320 


147,641 


1,567 


January, 










9,876 


11,773 


1.6,035 


208,018 


2,142 


February, 










7,343 


9,195 


12,039 


122,527 


2,000 


March, 










6,999 


18,338 


9,181 


92,054 


2,128 


April, . 










6,993 


35,116 


21,935 


103,337 


2,654 


May, . 










6,279 


22,564 


9,764 


83,527 


2,407 


June, . 










4,707 


16,809 


18,966 


80,522 


2,552 


July, . 










7,315 


14,263 


14,312 


94,247 


2,273 


August, 










6,916 


10,555 


13,161 


53,705 


1,665 


September, 










8,347 


10,195 


27,740 


33,662 


1,810 


October, 










17,979 


19,067 


37,970 


51,582 


2,015 


November, 










13,451 


11,913 


27,169 


109,497 


1,763 


Totals, 




106,342 


189,681 


226,592 


1,180,319 


24,976 



Glanders. 

The control of glanders among horses and mules in Massa- 
chusetts is a branch of the Department's work requiring con- 
stant attention. On account of the money loss it causes, and 
its danger to human life, the prevalence of this disease must 
be limited by every means at our command, and ultimate 
extermination accomplished if possible. 

The Department's records for the eighteen years previous to 
1917 show that glanders caused an average yearly loss of 731 
animals in that period, and that in one year (1913) 1,084 were 
killed on account of being affected. 

These records show the economic necessity for control and 
eradication, and although the number of deaths of persons 
infected with this disease by horses is a small one, it is never- 
theless regrettable that even one human life should be lost by 
this means. 



1918.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



21 



We are glad to be able to show by our records for this year 
that the prevalence of glanders in Massachusetts is being 
rapidly limited, there having been a reduction of 34 per cent, 
from the record of 1916 in the number of positive cases found, 
which number also shows that fewer horses or mules have this 
year been condemned on account of the disease than in any 
one of the nineteen constituting the tabulated record. 

The Department's records for the year ending Nov. 30, 1917, 
show the following facts : — 

At the end of 1916, 39 animals were under observation. Of 
this number, 16 have been killed as positive cases, 11 have been 
released as free from the disease, 4 died or were killed before 
final diagnosis was made, and 8 are still held under observation. 

During the past year 1,384 animals have been reported as 
being suspected of having glanders. Of this number, 270 
animals proved to be positive cases, and were destroyed in 
accordance with the requirements of the law; 21 died or were 
killed by owners before diagnosis had been made; 1,067 were 
released as free from the disease; and 23 were still held under 
observation at the end of the year. Three animals were killed 
by order of the Department, post-mortem examination of which 
did not reveal the presence of the disease, and full appraised 
value of the same ($490) Was paid to the owners. 



Horses reported as Suspected. 

Brought forward from year 1916, 

Arriving from outside of State and condemned, 

Reported by Tenderers, 

Reported by inspectors, Department agents, veterinarians, 
owners, etc., 



Disposition of Above Horses. 

Appraised and killed, positive, v . 
Killed, of no market value, positive, 
Reported by Tenderers, positive, . '. 
Killed by owners, no award, positive, . 
Died, positive, 



Appraised and killed, no lesions, . 
Killed by owners or died, no lesions, . 
Released as not affected with glanders, 
Awaiting disposition, . 



266 
1 
9 
7 
3 



39 

20 

9 

1,355 



286 

3 

25 

1,078 

31 



1,423 



1,423 



.).» 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Following is a table giving the number of cases of this 
disease covering a period of nineteen years. In this table 
cases which have occurred in the city of Boston are shown 
separately, on account of the fact that Boston was for many 
years the storm center of this disease. Special tabulation of 
the number of cases in that city has always been made in order 
that its relative importance to other sections of the State may 
be studied. 

X umber of Case*. 



Ykar. 



Cases. 



In Boston. 



In Other 
Places. 



Totals. 



1899, 
1900, 
1901, 
1902, 
1903, 
1904, 
1905, 
1906, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913, 
1914, 
1915, 
1916, 
1917, 



159 
192 
197 
155 
250 
254 
210 
194 
308 
389 
278 
314 
387 
395 
556 
355 
152 
157 
80 



384 
507 
548 
580 
610 
555 
414 
376 
403 
552 
406 
362 
565 
446 
528 
495 
250 
278 
206 



543 
699 
745 
735 
860 
809 
624 
570 
711 
941 
684 
676 
952 
841 
1.0S4 
850 
402 
435 
286 



As shown by the above table, there has been a marked de- 
crease in the number of cases this year. Several factors con- 
tribute to this decrease, the most potent ones undoubtedly 
being, first, the limitation of spread of the disease from one 
animal to another, which has been accomplished in many in- 
stances, probably, by the closing of all public watering troughs 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 23 

in sections where outbreaks have occurred; and second, the 
more general application to all exposed animals of the differ- 
ent diagnostic tests now available, followed by the prompt 
killing of such as are deemed to be positive cases. 

If an unusual prevalence of glanders occurs in any one stable 
it is our present practice to apply one or both of the tests now 
in use to all other horses kept on those premises. In this way 
we frequently disclose hidden or occult cases which would have 
escaped detection on ordinary physical examination, and which, 
not being observed, would not have been destroyed and would 
have continued to spread the infection. 

Our post-mortem examinations of these occult cases reveal 
the existence of the disease in such a large percentage of cases 
as to seemingly establish the reliability of the tests and war- 
rant their continued use as diagnostic aids. The tests now 
used are the ophthalmic mallein, or so-called "eye test," and 
the laboratory examination of samples of blood drawn from 
the animal's jugular vein, or the so-called " blood test." This 
year the laboratory examination of samples of blood has in- 
cluded the agglutination test in addition to the complement- 
fixation test, with the object of checking each test by the other 
and studying any differences which may be noted, thereby 
enabling us to make a more satisfactory decision in cases which 
for any reason are doubtful. 

In the so-called "stable tests," or tests of all animals in 
stables where glanders has been found, 1,112 horses have been 
tested in 64 stables, and among them 79 cases of glanders 
have been found which would have escaped detection by the 
ordinary physical examination, as they showed no clinical 
symptoms of the disease. These figures show that we have 
increased "stable testing" 84 per cent, during the past year. 

The Department has continued the policy of promptly kill- 
ing all animals showing clinical symptoms of glanders, of dis- 
infecting the premises where they have been stabled, the 
blacksmith shops in which they were shod, and the public 
watering troughs where they were in the habit of drinking. 
To effectively aid in the complete disinfection of premises 
from which diseased animals have been removed, owners have 
been requested to tear out mangers, loose boarding and such 



24 ANIMAL ENDUSTRY. [Jan. 

other portions of the stall as the animals had come in close 
contact with, or upon which might have been deposited any 
discharges from their respiratory passages. We have required 
that this disinfection be attended to by the owners of the 
premises before approving their claims for reimbursement. 

Animals which for any reason have been suspected of being 
diseased, either because of having been in contact with other 
diseased animals or as a result of the different tests, but which 
have not shown sufficient clinical symptoms to warrant con- 
demnation, have in some instances been quarantined, fre- 
quently examined, and allowed to work under certain restric- 
tions. We have found in some instances that contact animals 
apparently in perfect health have temporarily reacted to one 
of the tests applied, and at a later date have ceased to react 
to the same. It has therefore not been thought justifiable to 
kill valuable animals which, having reacted to only one of the 
tests above mentioned, did not also show clinical symptoms 
and appeared to be in a good condition of health. These 
so-called temporary reactors have, however, been carefully 
watched, subjected to frequent tests, and, upon reacting per- 
sistentlv to either one or both of the tests, have been de- 
st roved. Autopsies have been made on condemned animals in 
every case where there has been any conflict of the different 
tests, and in all other cases where practicable. 

The use of subcutaneous mallein for the testing of suspected 
animals is not advised by the Department, for the reason 
that it may interfere with the correctness of any r blood test 
subsequently thought advisable. 

At the present time, in 31 cities and towns of the Com- 
monwealth, the public watering troughs have either been closed 
or entirely eliminated, as an aid in preventing spread of the 
disease. 

In my opinion the closing of the public drinking places for 
animals has operated to limit the spread of contagious diseases 
other than glanders, and the practice of watering animals from 
individual pails is one to be encouraged from the standpoint 
of the control, not only of glanders, but also of many other 
diseases of a contagious character. We find that horse owners 
and team drivers are already acknowledging the beneficial re- 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 25 

suits of this method of watering animals under their charge, 
and do not think it advisable to return to the former method 
of making use of the public troughs. 

Another factor in the suppression of glanders is the disin- 
fection of blacksmith shops. Following the condemnation of 
an animal affected with this disease the proprietor of the black- 
smith shop in which this particular animal was shod has been 
directed to immediately disinfect the premises. Frequent in- 
spection of blacksmith shops by agents of the Department 
has undoubtedly been a factor in securing repeated disinfec- 
tion by their owners or occupants, and without doubt this 
practice has limited the prevalence of this disease to a great 
degree. Ninety-six inspections of blacksmith shops have been 
made during the year, and instructions given relative to dis- 
infection. 

The Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals, the Boston Workhorse Relief Association, the Animal 
Rescue League, and the branches of these various associations 
in many cities and towns of the State, have through their 
agents been of material aid to the Department in the work 
of controlling this disease. Their close observation of working 
animals of all classes has brought to light many showing 
suspicious symptoms, which they have promptly reported to 
this Department^ and many of the animals so reported have 
proved to be positive cases of the disease. 

The constant activity of the humane societies in removing 
disabled animals from work, and destroying those which on 
account of extreme age or poor condition are no longer useful, 
is undoubtedly a factor in the suppression of glanders, as such 
animals are very susceptible to this infection. 

The maximum amount, fixed by chapter 646 of the Acts 
of 1913, which may be paid for any one animal condemned 
and destroyed on account of being affected with glanders being 
$50, the appraised value of the animals condemned is a sub- 
ject of considerable interest. Of the 286 positive cases of 
glanders occurring during the year, 266 were appraised at a 
total valuation of $40,063, the average amount per animal 
being $150.61. On the remaining 20 animals affected with 
glanders no appraisal was made for the following reasons: 



26 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



9 of them were reported by renderers, the disease having been 
found on autopsy; 10 died or were killed by owners before 
appraisal could be made; and 1 animal killed was of no market 
value. 

Of the 266 horses appraised no award was allowed on 28, 
16 of them being interstate, 5 arriving in Massachusetts with 
Federal troops, 4 not having been in the Commonwealth the 
required twelve months prior to condemnation, 1 having been 
killed by owner after appraisal, and 2 having died while await- 
ing result of test. Of the remaining 238 horses which were 
appraised, 206 have been paid for, the amount paid being 
$10,222, and 32 are awaiting the filing of claims for payment. 

Complement-fixation Test. 

Of the 32 horses under observation at the end of the year 
1916, 1 was condemned, 4 were released and 2 died, and 25 
were subjected to the complement-fixation test, with result 
that 11 of them were condemned and killed, 1 died, 7 were 
released as probably free from the disease, and 6 are still under 
observation. 

Twelve hundred and six samples of blood were taken from 
864 horses during the year 1917, and the following disposition 
of the animals was made: — 



Animals held over from 1915, disposed of as above, 

Animals held over from 1916, disposed of as above, 

Animals released on first test, 

Released on second test, . 

Released on third test, . 

Released on fourth test, . 

Released on fifth test, 

Died or killed by owner after first test, 

Died or killed by owner after second test, 

Died or killed by owner after third test, 

Condemned on first test, 

Condemned on second test, . 

Condemned on third test, 

Condemned on fourth test, 

Held for further observation, 



1 
24 
502 
96 
23 
12 

2 
18 

3 

1 

106 

36 

14 

2 
24 



864 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 27 

Ophthalmic-mallein Test. 

This test has been applied to 1,191 horses during the year. 
It happens that the test in some instances was repeated on 
the same animals, and 1,446 such tests have been made. The 
results are as follows : — 

Tests giving positive reaction, 239 

Tests giving no reaction, 1,061 

Tests giving unsatisfactory results, 146 

1,446 
Agglutination Test. 

Seven hundred and forty of the samples of blood examined 
in the laboratory during the past year have been subjected to 
the agglutination test in addition to the complement-fixation 
test. 

Interstate Horses. 

Horses, asses and mules shipped to Massachusetts from the 
States of New York, Connecticut and Rhode Island must be 
accompanied by a permit from the Commissioner of Animal 
Industry. This regulation was established on account of the 
prevalence of glanders among the horses of the States men- 
tioned, and in order that upon arrival the animals might be im- 
mediately located, and examined by agents of this Department. 

The number of horses, mules and asses shipped from these 
States has increased from 4,500 in the year 1916 to 4,764 in 
the year ending Nov. 30, 1917. Among these animals very 
few cases of glanders have been found, as shown by the fol- 
lowing statistics : — 

Equine Animals from New York, Connecticut and Rhode Island. 

Mules, _ 9 

Donkeys, 2 

Horses, 4,753 

4,764 

Disposition of Above Animals. 

Died soon after arrival, 2 

Condemned as affected with glanders, 16 

Released upon physical examination, 3,126 

Released after test, 1,620 

4,764 



28 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

The small number of animals condemned, as shown by the 
above table, is worthy of notice. Many of the animals brought 
from the above-mentioned States are of the better class, being 
highly bred horses used for carriage work and breeding pur- 
poses. The second-hand horses, which are trafficked in and 
sent from the markets of one State to those of another for 
purpose of public sale, have been specially watched on account 
of their being considered more liable to be subjects of con- 
tagious disease than the higher class animals, and if not ac- 
companied by a satisfactory certificate of test have been tested 
on arrival by agents of the Department. 

Rabies. 

The control and eradication of rabies in dogs is a matter 
requiring special attention by this Department, not only on 
account of the monetary loss which the disease causes every 
year by the death of valuable dogs, but as a public health 
measure on account of the communicability of rabies to man. 
Every species of domestic animals, many species of wild ani- 
mals, and the human subject are susceptible to infection with 
this disease, although its general prevalence is among dogs. 

In considering the means by which this disease is spread 
the dog only need be mentioned, and the ownerless or stray 
dog is the one requiring special attention, as he is much more 
often a spreader of the disease than is the dog which has 
proper care and a good home. The ownerless dog may become 
affected with rabies and spread the infection before he is ob- 
served to be in an abnormal condition, and, no one being 
especially interested in his welfare, it happens that the atten- 
tion of the proper authorities is not promptly directed to him. 
Unfortunately the dog license laws are not strictly enforced 
in all cities and towns, and therefore one great factor in the 
control and eradication of this disease is not operative. In 
our opinion, if the present laws are more strictly enforced 
than they have been hitherto, and the projected dog laws for 
the protection of the sheep industry are passed and enforced, 
a marked reduction in the number of cases of rabies will result. 

Many complications in the control and eradication of in- 
fectious diseases among other kinds of animals do not enter 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 29 

into the control of rabies, for the reason that there is much 
less traffic in dogs than in those animals which are used for 
production of food material or for business purposes, and also 
because their market value is on an average very much less. 
It is possible, also, to confine them at much less expense than 
larger animals, and they generally endure the restraint with- 
out danger to their health. For these reasons, although an 
outbreak of rabies causes much inconvenience and trouble to 
dog owners, and often subjects public officials to unjust criti- 
cism on account of quarantine restrictions necessarily imposed, 
nevertheless its control can generally be accomplished by the 
prompt co-operation of town and city officials with this De- 
partment in the measures directed toward such control. 

Following is a general outline of the Department's methods 
in this work under the present regulations : — 

Upon report being made to the Department of Animal In- 
dustry that a person has been bitten by a dog, the inspector 
of animals of the town or city in which it occurs is ordered to 
make an examination of the animal, and, even if it appears 
to be healthy, to have it restrained for a period of fourteen 
days for the purpose of observation. This regulation is deemed 
necessary for the reason that competent authorities have proven 
that in some instances the bite of a dog infected with rabies 
may communicate the infection fourteen days before the ani- 
mal itself shows clinical symptoms. If at the end of this 
period no symptoms of rabies have developed, the animal may 
be released. In case a person is bitten by a dog which upon 
examination by the inspector of animals, or any other person, 
shows evidence of already being affected with rabies, this ani- 
mal is immediately confined in strict quarantine. If it is sub- 
sequently killed or dies, its head is at once sent to the De- 
partment's office, and a laboratory examination of the brain 
is made for the purpose of confirming the diagnosis. Infor- 
mation as to the laboratory findings is promptly communi- 
cated to the person or persons who have been bitten. The 
State Department of Health is given the information received 
in every case of dog bite reported to this office, whether the 
bite has been inflicted by an animal suspected of rabies or not. 
We also order the local inspector of animals to ascertain not 



30 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

only the names of all persons who have been bitten by dogs 
suspected of rabies, but to find out if animals have also been 
bitten, and if so to place the same in quarantine for a period 
of at least ninety days. All dogs which are known to have been 
in contact with a rabid animal, whether or not it appears that 
they have been bitten by it, are also placed in quarantine for 
the same period. 

If an unusual number of cases of rabies is found to exist 
in any town or city, the selectmen or the mayor or board of 
aldermen are asked to issue a restraining order, under the 
provisions of section 158 of chapter 102 of the Revised Laws. 
Such an order obliges all dog owners to confine their animals 
to their own premises for a certain period, or take them there- 
from only on leash. This restraining order is much more 
effective in the local control of an outbreak than is an order 
which compels owners only to muzzle the animals but not 
restrain them, as a muzzled animal let loose may in some way 
get the muzzle off and bite other animals or people. A muzzled 
dog at large may, therefore, become much more dangerous 
than an unmuzzled one which is at all times confined upon 
owner's premises or taken therefrom only on leash. Dogs 
found running at large while a restraining order issued by 
town or city authorities is in force may be killed on the issuance 
of a warrant for the same to a police officer. It has been 
found necessary to issue general restraining orders in five towns 
of the Commonwealth during the past year. These orders were 
for periods of ninety days. 

Our force of district agents, most of whom are veterinarians 
located in different parts of the State, together with the local 
inspectors of animals, of whom there is one or more in every 
city and town of the State, constitutes an organization by which 
systematic local control of an outbreak of this disease can gen- 
erally be accomplished within a reasonably short time. 

During the present year we have been in constant fear of 
local outbreaks of this disease on account of its unusual prev- 
alence in the neighboring State of Connecticut. In that State 
during the past year rabies has prevailed extensively in many 
towns west of the Connecticut River, and during the last 
months of the year has extended to the northeastern portion 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 31 

of the State and to many towns contiguous to the Massa- 
chusetts line. At the present time dogs in 123 towns of that 
State are officially quarantined or restrained on account of the 
prevalence of this disease, and a spread of the contagion across 
the line to Massachusetts could reasonably be expected. We 
find that in the last few months of the present year quite a 
few additional cases have been reported in Massachusetts, 
the source of which has in many instances been traced to 
Connecticut. 

On Nov. 16, 1917, the following letter was addressed to the 
372 inspectors of animals in the various cities and towns of 
the Commonwealth : — 



A serious situation confronts us at the present time on account of a 
threatened invasion of rabies. For a period of more than a year this 
disease has prevailed very extensively in our neighboring States of Con- 
necticut and Rhode Island. In Connecticut at the present time there 
are more than 100 towns in which the dogs are muzzled, restrained or 
quarantined, and the contagion seems not yet to be under control. 

Owing to the ease by which this disease is spread by stray dogs, it is 
reasonable to expect that Massachusetts will experience a more or less 
serious outbreak in the near future, and it may be said that already an 
unusual prevalence of it is reported from several different towns and 
cities. 

I deem it advisable at this time to call this matter to your especial 
attention, so that, having the danger in mind, you may be prepared to 
put into execution such methods towards its prevention as may be in 
your power. I advise that on every possible occasion you acquaint dog 
owners with the situation, and ask them to immediately report to you 
any ownerless or stray dogs, and also any which are showing unusual 
symptoms of any kind. Such animals should be immediately confined 
and securely chained, so that if rabies develops they cannot further spread 
the contagion by biting other animals or persons. 

If you receive reports of strange dogs having gone through your town 
which have been in contact with any others, it would be a measure of 
prevention to immediately confine the contact dogs for observation. 

Please report promptly any facts in connection with this matter that 
may come to your attention, and request advice from this Department 
at any time. 

It is my opinion that, being forewarned of this threatened outbreak, 
inspectors of animals should be ready to take prompt action when the 
invasion immediately threatens, and thereby very materially limit its 
prevalence. 



.;_> 



ANIMAL ENDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



I have found inspectors of animals specially alert to their 
duties in towns where a case of rabies has appeared, and by 
prompt action they have undoubtedly limited the extent of a 
local outbreak of this disease. We are receiving, also, the 
earnest co-operation of dog owners, private veterinarians and 
agents of the various humane societies. 

During the year ending Nov. 30, 1917, 335 animals were 
reported to the Department for diagnosis, observation or quar- 
antine on account of the prevalence of rabies, and 12 were 
brought forward from the year 1916. The records have been 
classified as follows: — 

Animals suspected of rabies, 95 

Animals exposed to rabies (7 reported in 1916, 107 in 1917), . .114 
Animals which have inflicted bites upon persons (5 reported in 1916, 
133 in 1917), 138 



Animals suspected of Rabies. 





Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Pigs. 


Diagnosis positive, ...... 

Diagnosis questionable, . - . 

No diagnosis made, 


51 

22 

. 10 

1 


9 

1 


1 



Referring to the 10 cases in the above table on which the 
diagnosis is given as questionable, 6 of these animals disap- 
peared, but on account of their having bitten other dogs or 
cattle which later developed rabies they have been recorded as 



cases. 



One animal said to have died of indigestion is recorded as 
rabies, diagnosis questionable, as another dog which it had 
bitten and which had not been in contact with any other 
animal developed rabies. 

One animal was reported in a newspaper article as having 
been affected with the disease. The animal disappeared, and, 
positive diagnosis not being possible, it was recorded as a case 
of rabies, diagnosis questionable. 



1918.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



33 



In one instance a dog was killed supposed to have been 
suffering from rabies, but the body having been destroyed, 
laboratory examination could not be made. 

In another instance the brain of a dog was sent to this office 
in such a mutilated condition that examination was impossible. 
The clinical symptoms of this case not having been typical of 
rabies, it also was recorded as questionable. 

Regarding the one animal recorded as "no diagnosis made," 
it was reported by a veterinarian as a suspicious case. The 
animal was killed and the body disposed of without examination. 

Animals exposed to Rabies. 



* _ 


Dogs. 


Horses. 


Cats. 


Number released after a quarantine of ninety days, 


35 


1 


- 


Number killed, no symptoms having developed, 


23 


- 


1 


Number killed, positive symptoms having developed, . 


2 


- 




Number still held under observation, 


51 


- 


1 



Animals which have inflicted Bites upon Persons. 





Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Number killed during quarantine, no symptoms having developed, 
Number released after fourteen days' quarantine, .... 
Number still held under observation, . 


3 

31 
97 

6 


1 



Of the 51 rabid dogs in the first classification, 13 had bitten 
persons. Of the 10 dogs on which the diagnosis was question- 
able, 3 had bitten persons. 

Twelve animals which were under observation at the close 
of the year 1916 were disposed of during 1917, as follows: — 



Dogs killed at request of owners, not having shown symptoms of the 

disease, 3 

Dogs released from observation, no symptoms having developed, . 8 

Cattle released from observation, no symptoms having developed, . 1 



:;i 



ANIMAL [NDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



There have been examined in the laboratory during the past 
year the brains of 64 dogs, 3 cows and 1 pig. Of this number, 
26 dogs and 2 cows showed positive evidence of the disease. 
In the case of 1 dog the diagnosis was questionable, and in 
35 dogs, 1 cow and 1 pig the diagnosis was negative, and the 
heads of 2 dogs were so decomposed at time of examination 
that no diagnosis could be made. Of the 335 animals reported 
for observation, diagnosis or quarantine 32 were, as far as the 
Department could determine, unlicensed and ownerless dogs, 
10 of which proved to be positive cases of the disease. 

The following table shows the number of positive cases of 
rabies bv cities and towns: — 



City or Town. 



Amherst, 

Attleboro, 

Berkley, . 

Beverly, . 

Boston (10): — 
Dorchester, 
Brighton, 
Charles town 
Roxbury, 

Boylston, 

Brookline, 

Canton, . 

Charlton, 

Chelsea, . 

Dighton, 

Dudley, . 

Easton, . 

Falmouth, 

Framingham, 

Franklin, 

Holliston, 



Dogs. 



Cows. 



City or Town. 



Lakeville, 

Lowell, . 

Mansfield, 

Marion, . 

Marshfield, 

New Braintree, 

Newton, . 

North Attleborough 

Revere, . 

Sandisfield, 

Scituate, . 

Somerville, 

Southbridge, . 

Sunderland, . 

Wareham, 

Webster, . 

West Boylston, 

West Brookfield, 

Worcester, 

Totals, 



Dogs. 



53 



Cows. 



Hog Cholera. 

Our activities in attempting to control and eradicate hog 
cholera have increased during the year. Notwithstanding the 
fact that we have added three agents to our staff (one of 
whom, however, has since joined the Colors and is now in 
service in France) the demand for treatment has continued to 
grow so rapidly that it has at times taxed our ability to attend 
to the applications for treatment as promptly as is our custom. 
The work has continued along the same general line which has 
been in effect since 1914. Slight improvements in our methods 
have been made in accordance with the valuable experience 



1918.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



35 



gained in the execution of the work, but in general it has not 
been found necessary during the past year to make any radi- 
cal departure from our policy. During the year the serum 
treatment was administered to 51,222 animals. These animals 
represent 753 herds evenly proportioned throughout the State 
in 190 cities and towns. The following list shows the cities 
and towns in which immunization work has been carried on, 
the number of herds, and animals treated in each town: — 



City or Town. 


Herds. 


Animals 
treated. 


City or Town. 


Herds. 


Animals 
treated. 


Abington, 


7 


33 


Gloucester, 


3 


194 


Acton, 






2 


18 


Goshen, . 






1 


1 


Acushnet, 






1 


6 


Grafton, . 






14 


545 


Adams, . 






3 


61 


Granby, . 






3 


52 


Agawam, 




* 


17 


372 


Granville, 






1 


8 


Amesbury, 






2 


85 


Great Barrington, 






1 


5 


Amherst, 






5 


74 


Greenfield, 






4 


485 


Andover, 






2 


50 


Hadley, . 






1 


17 


Arlington, 






2 


50 


Hamilton, 






1 


25 


Ashburnham, 






1 


2 


Hampden, 






1 


10 


Ashby, 






1 


7 


Hanover, 






1 


35 


Attleboro, 






3 


26 


Hatfield, 






1 


2 


Auburn, . 






4 


180 


Haverhill, 






4 


67 


Ayer, 






2 


497 


Hingham, 






2 


11 


Barnstable, 






2 


94 


Holden, . 






7 


63 


Bedford, . 






2 


54 


Holland, . 






1 


8 


Belchertown, 






2 


119 


Holliston, 






1 


17 


Belmont, 






9 


1,377 


Holyoke, 






11 


604 


Berlin, 






1 


8 


Hudson, . 






2 


60 


Bernardston, 






1 


9 


Hull, 






3 


775 


Beverly, . 






3 


484 


Ipswich, . 






2 


163 


Boston, . 






3 


901 


Kingston, 






1 


4 


Bourne, . 






2 . 


45 


Lakeville, 






2 


139 


Boy Is ton, 






2 


47 


Lancaster, 






3 


3 


Bridgewater, 






3 


508 


Lanesborough, 






5 


113 


Brockton, 






2 


940 


Lenox, 






8 


47 


Brookfield, 






1 


1 


Leominster, 






6 


178 


Brookline, 






1 


13 


Lexington, 






17 


2,712 


Burlington, 






1 


760 


Lincoln, . 






6 


715 


Chelmsford, 






1 


1 


Littleton, 






1 


134 


Chelsea, . 






1 


9 


Longmeadow, 






5 


65 


Chester, . 






1 


1 


Lowell, . 






8 


344 


Chicopee, 






8 


179 


Ludlow, . 






10 


499 


Colrain, . 






1 


6 


Lunenburg, 






1 


22 


Concord, 






4 


259 


Lynn, 






2 


46 


Dalton, . 






5 


9 


Manchester, 






2 


121 


Danvers, 






4 


1,289 


Marlborough, . 






1 


84 


Dedham, 






4 


81 


Marblehead, . 






6 


230 


Deerfield, 






2 


8 


Marion, . 






1 


46 


Dennis, . 






1 


13 


Marshfield, 






1 


4 


Dighton, 






1 


3 


Medfield, 






1 


536 


Dover, 






4 


210 


Middleborough, 






1 


8 


Dracut, . 






4 


63 


Middleton, 






1 


1 


East Bridgewater, 




1 


7 


Milford, . 






2 


167 


East Longmeadow, 




19 


182 


Millbury, 






8 


274 


Easthampton, 




15 


139 


Millis, . 






2 


148 


Easton, . 




3 


140 


Milton, . 






1 


187 


Egremont, 






2 


12 


Monson, . 






2 


219 


Erving, . 






3 


31 


Montague, 






1 


18 


Essex, 






3 


23 


Natick, . 






2 


137 


Everett, . 






1 


35 


Needham, 






8 


495 


Fitchburg, 






17 


765 


New Bedford, 






2 


81 


Foxborough, 






3 


94 


Newbury, 






2 


19 


Framingham, 






4 


323 


Newbury port, 






5 


61 


Freetown, 






1 


24 


Newton, . 






7 


505 


Gardner, 






10 


284 


Norfolk, . 






3 


276 


Gill 


2 


266 


North Adams, 






10 


407 

1 



36 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan, 



City or Town. 


Herds. 


Animals 
treated. 


City or Town. 


Herds. 


Animals 
treated. 


North Attleborough, 


2 


61 


Sterling, . 


4 


98 


North Reading, 


3 


120 


Stone ham, 






1 


13 


Northampton, 




11 


880 


Stoughton, 






1 


584 


Northborough, 




1 


1 


Sudbury, 






3 


111 


Northfield, 




3 


124 


Sunderland, 






3 


36 


Norton, . 






1 


2 


Swansea, 






2 


333 


Norwell, . 






1 


15 


Templeton, 






2 


19 


Norwood, 






2 


19 


Tewksbury, 






2 


850 


Oxford, . 






1 


1 


Townsend, 






1 


7 


Palmer, . 






1 


7 


Tyngsborough 






6 


213 


Paxton, . 






1 


84 


Wakefield, 






1 


10 


Peabody, 






7 


454 


Walpole, . 






3 


41 


Pepperell, 






1 


18 


Waltham , 






15 


4,252 


Phillipston, 






1 


3 


Watertown , 






3 


359 


Pittsfield, 






43 


1021 


Webster, . 






1 


25 


Plymouth, 






4 


197 


Wellesley, 






2 


68 


Quincy, . 






2 


5 


Wendell, . 






2 


16 


Ray n ham, 






1 


5 


West Boylston, 




1 


43 


Revere, . 






7 


2,864 


West Bridgewater, 




1 


17 


Richmond, 






1 


15 


West Newbury, 




1 


55 


Rockland, 






1 


61 


West Springfield, 




4 


42 


Rockport, 






1 


22 


Westborough, . 




1 


151 


Rowley, . 






1 


16 


Westfield, 






21 


561 


Rutland, 






2 


277 


Westford, 






2 


16 


Salem, 






3 


2,016 


Westminster, 






3 


49 


Saugus, . 






3 


183 


Weston, . 






4 


78 


Scituate, . 






17 


54 


Westport, 






1 


27 


Seekonk, 






6 


1,025 


Westwood , 






3 


142 


Sharon, . 






1 


3 


Weymouth, 






4 


93 


Shelburne, 






1 


2 


Whitman, 






2 


34 


Sberborn, 






7 


136 


Wilbraham, 






5 


144 


Shirley, . 






3 


78 


Williamsburg, 




1 


18 


Somerville, 






1 


37 


Williamstown, 




13 


133 


South Hadley, 




3 


75 


Wilmington, . 




5 


202 


Southampton, 




1 


41 


Winchester, 






2 


51 


Southborough, 




2 


16 


Woburn, . 






4 


100 


Southbridge, . 




1 


9 


Worcester, 






10 


5,929 


Springfield, 




42 


2,790 


Wrentham , 






2 


97 



Since the inception of this work we have repeatedly called 
the attention of the public to the fact that the true value of 
this process of immunization against hog cholera, as in any 
other form of preventive medicine, lies in its application while 
the animals are in a healthv condition, rather than after a 
herd becomes infected. When this is done there are no losses 
from natural infection, the cost of the treatment is minimized, 
and, as shown by our statistics, there are practically no losses 
following immunization; whereas when the work is postponed 
the financial loss entailed by the death of animals which have 
not been immunized, together with the cost of the extra amount 
of serum necessarily used when infection is present, is con- 
siderable. We have anticipated that as these facts became 
more apparent to swine owners a smaller proportion would 
postpone immunization until infection occurred; and it is ex- 
tremely gratifying to be able to show a decided increase in the 
number of herds immunized with no infection apparent at the 
time the work was done. 



1918.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



37 



The following table covering four years is offered in illus- 
tration : — 





1914. 


1915. 


1916. 


1917. 


Herds infected at time of treatment, . 

Herds apparently healthy at time of treatment, 


65 
2 


150 
95 


192 
113 


282 
470 




67 


245 


305 


752 



It will be seen from the preceding table that the number 
of herds infected at the time of treatment, as well as the ap- 
parently healthy herds, in which the immunization process has 
been carried out, has increased. On first reading this table it 
might seem that there had been more infected herds each 
succeeding year. As a matter of fact, however, although more 
are reported, there are actually fewer outbreaks of the disease. 
The increase in the number of known infected herds is due to 
this fact: a larger number of owners are becoming aware that 
immunization will save a large proportion of their animals, 
and they therefore report the outbreaks and call for our assist- 
ance, whereas formerly this was not done. In this connection 
it must be remembered that inasmuch as a large proportion 
of Massachusetts swine are garbage-fed, the premises on which 
they are kept must be considered as permanently infected, and 
that in the larger piggeries hog cholera has been a constant 
factor since the inception of the business, which in many cases 
extends over a period of twenty-five years. 

Recently the owner of one large herd where the swine are 
now being immunized, cholera controlled, and losses entirely 
prevented informed us that a conservative estimate of his 
losses in young pigs from hog cholera for the past twenty-five 
years would be at the rate of 2,000 animals per year, or 50,000 
animals. Previous to this year he never considered it worth 
while to report his outbreaks to the live-stock authorities. 
This is given as one of several examples which might be cited 
of the practical value of immunization. 

The control of hog cholera simply by disinfection and the 
"serum only" treatment, under Massachusetts conditions, is 
practically impossible. Garbage containing pork scraps is a 



38 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

means of reinfecting premises almost as soon as disinfection 
can be accomplished. The only way to prevent losses from 
hog cholera in these garbage-fed herds is, therefore, to keep 
all susceptible animals immunized against the disease by the 
simultaneous method. In this connection it is interesting to 
note that there is every evidence of these herds being infected 
at all times, as the following facts will show: — 

It is our custom to immunize all the mature stock by the 
simultaneous method. Pigs born of sows so immunized are 
given the "serum only" treatment when they are six weeks of 
age. When these animals are twelve weeks old and weigh 40 
pounds or over they are given the simultaneous treatment. 
There has been a tendency on the part of some swine owners — 
who had always experienced yearly losses from hog cholera, 
but who, on account of our immunization work, have had no 
losses for a year or two — to believe the disease to be eradi- 
cated from their herds, and on that account they do not have 
their young pigs promptly immunized at the proper time. We 
find in almost every instance of this kind, if young pigs from 
immune sows are not given the "serum only" treatment at 
six weeks of age, that cholera develops among them; and in 
other cases pigs which have been given the "serum only" 
treatment at six weeks of age, but which do not receive the 
simultaneous treatment when they weigh 40 pounds (at twelve 
weeks), promptly develop hog cholera. In these same herds, 
where the work is promptly attended to as advised, generation 
after generation is raised without having an outbreak of the 
disease. 

In this connection a comparison regarding the length of time 
during which passive immunity exists following the "serum 
only" treatment will be of interest. We find in Massachusetts 
that this passive immunity will generally last for six weeks, 
only two exceptions to this rule having been so far found. 
We are informed that through the middle west, however, such 
immunity lasts as a rule only four weeks, and in the extreme 
west it lasts approximately eight weeks. 

During the year outbreaks of hog cholera developed in three 
herds under circumstances which again illustrate the wisdom 
of our policy as adopted three years ago of not administering 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 39 

the simultaneous treatment to pigs under 40 pounds. At the 
time this policy was adopted it had been found, in almost 
every instance where garbage-fed pigs were immunized when 
weighing under 40 pounds, that these animals failed to de- 
velop an active immunity, but did develop a passive immunity 
lasting seldom more than six to twelve months. There were 
three herds, however, in which such "breaks" did not occur, 
and apparently the animals were permanently immune. Dur- 
ing the past year in each of these three herds all the mature 
stock which had been immunized when weighing less than 40 
pounds developed hog cholera, whereas all of the animals 
immunized when weighing 40 pounds or more, although in 
contact with the affected animals, failed to develop the disease. 
The following table, giving comparative statistics for the 
four years in which we have been engaged in this work, pre- 
sents the results more concisely than can be done in any other 
way: — 



41) 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan, 



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1918.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



41 





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42 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

The number of herds treated in most instances represents 
more than one visit on the part of our agents. Thus, although 
the total number of herds in which immunization was carried 
out was 753, this represents 1,541 visits at which animals were 
immunized, and approximately 400 visits at which it was 
necessary to postpone work on account of unsanitary sur- 
roundings or other conditions which would make it inadvisable 
to immunize. In addition to the above, approximately 250 
visits were made to herds which were reported as infected and 
where no treatment was administered. 

During the year our co-operation was requested by the 
leaders of the different pig clubs throughout the State. Al- 
though the majority of the boys and girls belonging to the pig 
clubs feed their animals grain rather than garbage, these ani- 
mals are in close proximity to garbage-fed herds and to known 
infected herds. It was therefore considered wise to advise the 
immunization of as many of these pigs as possible. Unfortu- 
nately the work was undertaken rather late in the year, and 
consequently was not carried through as thoroughly as might 
otherwise have been the case. Notwithstanding this fact a 
considerable number of animals of this class were immunized, 
and inasmuch as in the majority of cases the owner had only 
one pig, it can readily be seen that this called for a tremen- 
dous amount of work and travel on the part of our agents, 
it frequently being necessary to travel several miles to immunize 
one pig. Undoubtedly this work will be even greater in the 
coming year. 

Attention to the prevalence of secondary infection associated 
with hog cholera is becoming increasingly important in our 
work. We have less of the acute true septicemic form of hog 
cholera and more of the less acute type combined with second- 
ary infection than is seen in the west. While this has always 
been true it is more apparent at present than at any time 
since our work started. This prevalence is due largely to the 
fact that garbage-fed swine are as a rule in poorer condition 
this year than usual. The entire year just passed has been 
a hard one on swine on account of weather conditions, and 
their already weakened vitality has been further lowered by 
the rapid decrease in the quality of garbage. This renders 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 43 

them more susceptible to secondary infection caused by Bacillus 
suisepticus, Bacillus suipestifer and Bacillus necrophorus, as well 
as to parasitic infestation. This makes our work increasingly 
difficult, and indicates the necessity of our agents being able 
to diagnose secondary infection clinically. Under such con- 
ditions a decided decrease in the mortality following our work 
in infected herds is especially worthy of notice. 

A perusal of our records for four years' work in herds in 
which no infection was apparent at time of treatment should 
prove conclusively that there is little or no danger following 
the simultaneous treatment in non-infected herds. Attention 
should here be called to the fact that in our work as recorded 
we have used only serum and virus of the highest standard 
possible, and which has passed a thorough bacteriological and 
physiological test, and that our technique of administration has 
been carefully executed. 

The long-continued high price of pork during the latter part 
of 1916 gave us every reason to believe that there would be 
a decided increase in the number of swine in Massachusetts 
during 1917. As anticipated, the demand for young pigs dur- 
ing the spring months of 1917 was undoubtedly greater than 
any which has ever been . experienced in this State. The de- 
mand for six weeks' old pigs, at prices varying from $10 to 
$14 per animal, greatly exceeded the supply, and it was at 
first believed that this condition would result in a decided 
increase in the permanent swine population of the State. As 
time progressed, however, and the price of pork was continu- 
ously placed higher until it reached the unprecedented figure 
of 24 cents per pound, the movement reached the other ex- 
treme, and resulted in the slaughter of thousands of animals 
which should have been kept for brood purposes. This has, 
however, had a tendency to maintain the unusual market for 
young pigs, so that the swine population of this State is at 
the present time not far from normal. 

With the increased number of persons desiring to keep swine 
came an increased demand on their part for garbage to be 
utilized in the feeding of these animals. This demand was 
principally in the neighborhoods or districts where garbage had 
previously been disposed of in some other manner. During 



H ANIMAL [NDUSTRY. [Jan. 

the summer the office of the Department was besieged with 
letters from all parts of the country requesting information 
regarding garbage feeding. Large numbers of persons who 
were in many cases without previous experience in this respect 
started piggeries, using garbage for feed. It was thought that 
this movement would be beneficial in two ways, — first, in 
the better utilization of a waste product; and second, by a 
large increase in the amount of native pork available in the 
local markets. Most persons undertaking this new venture 
have been successful, some extremely so. On the other hand, 
some individuals have been unsuccessful, generally due to the 
fact that they did not have proper sanitary surroundings or 
necessary equipment for sheltering their animals. The matter 
is very completely summarized in the following quotation 
from a circular issued by the United States Department of 
Agriculture on the subject, entitled "Disposal of City Garbage 
in Feeding Hogs:" — 

If garbage in good condition is fed with proper surroundings, there is 
no reason why pork from this source should not compare favorably with 
pork from grain-fed hogs. 

During the latter part of the year an unlooked-for compli- 
cation in the swine industry arose. Both the quantity and the 
quality of garbage has decreased very rapidly since August, — 
an effect due to the high price of food and the efforts toward 
food conservation. This situation is to-day of serious concern 
to those who depend largely or entirely on this product as food 
for their swine. It is estimated that in many cities the quan- 
tity of garbage now being received is from 30 to 40 per cent, 
less than the average amount previously obtained. The qual- 
ity of garbage, when considered from a food point of view, is 
approximately 40 per cent, lower than it was previous to con- 
servation efforts. It has been found necessary in almost all 
garbage-fed herds to very materially reduce the number of 
animals kept. In some instances it has been found necessary 
to either sell the herd or to discontinue the feeding of garbage, 
inasmuch as its nutritive value does not offset the cost of pro- 
curing it. Notwithstanding this, the fact must not be over- 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 45 

looked that garbage is extremely valuable as a food for swine, 
being probably nearer a balanced ration than any other one 
food product. 

It can be estimated for those who are not familiar with this 
method of feeding that ordinary city garbage, if in good con- 
dition and maintained so until fed, will cause an increase of 1 
pound live weight for every 37| pounds fed, or 1 pound of 
dressed weight for every 50 pounds fed. It is stated by those 
who are authorities on the subject that pork from prime 
garbage-fed swine is of equally good food value, texture and 
color as pork from grain-fed animals. On the Boston market, 
at least, garbage-fed swine are paid for at the same price per 
pound as those which are grain-fed. It is estimated that under 
normal conditions 1 ton of garbage per day will care for 100 
shoats. The fact should not be overlooked, however, that as 
the nutritive value of garbage decreases, the number of ani- 
mals which 1 ton would accommodate must correspondingly 
decrease. In consideration of the above facts, the utilization 
of garbage by feeding to swine should become more general 
in many sections of the country where heretofore it has not 
been thought practicable. 

There are certain factors which should be taken into con- 
sideration by the garbage feeder. It should be remembered 
that it is practically impossible to feed garbage without the 
swine becoming infected with hog cholera, unless these animals 
have been immunized against the disease. For this purpose 
the following suggestions are made regarding disease control, 
all of which have been obtained from our experience in the 
execution of our four years' work. 

1. The simultaneous treatment is always preferable to the 
"serum only" treatment. 

2. Swine under 40 pounds should never be given the simul- 
taneous treatment. 

3. The virus which is used in immunizing garbage-fed swine 
must be the most virulent which can be procured, and larger 
doses are advisable than for grain-fed swine. 

4. The fundamental principles of immunology must never be 
lost sight of, and it should be remembered always that in herds 
where garbage has been fed for several years, a highly developed 



46 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

resistance to the disease has been developed among the mature 
stock, and that as a result of this a greater amount of in- 
herited immunity is transmitted to the offspring from these 
mature animals. In this connection the immunization of 
garbage-fed swine is radically different from that of swine 
fed on grain. 

5. Because of the different nature of the food and the less 
sanitary surroundings, Bacillus suisepticus, causing hemorrhagic 
septicemia or swine plague, and Bacillus necrophorus, causing 
the foot-and-mouth forms of this disease, are ever present, 
and are an added menace to the health of these animals. 

Miscellaneous Diseases. 

Anthrax. — This is a disease existing in many different parts 
of the world, causing the death of many thousands of animals 
and occurring secondarily in man. The infection is found in 
horses and also in cattle, sheep and other cloven-hoofed ani- 
mals. The most common method of transmission to the human 
subject is by the handling of hides taken from animals which 
have been infected with the disease. 

On an occurrence of an outbreak at any point in the State 
it immediately becomes necessary to prevent the spread of the 
infection in every way possible, and our work in this direction 
consists of a preventive inoculation of all animals on the 
premises where a case of the disease is found, and of particular 
attention to the destruction of the carcasses of animals which 
have died. As the spores of the causative agent of this disease 
remain lodged in the soil in an active state for a long time, 
we require that entire carcasses be deeply buried and covered 
with quicklime, and the surrounding soil burned over and 
thoroughly fenced, so that other animals may not graze at 
that particular point. Inoculation of the remaining animals is 
in a majority of cases effective in immunizing them for a period 
of twelve months at least, and therefore this preventive in- 
oculation is continued from year to year on many farms where 
the disease has once appeared. As infected animals ordinarily 
die within a few hours of the onset of the disease, the first 
animals attacked in a particular locality all generally die be- 
fore treatment can be applied. 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 47 

During the past year there has been a decrease in the prev- 
alence of this disease, only 6 cattle on three different premises 
having been found to be affected. Of these 6 animals 1 was 
in the town of Berlin, 3 were in Bolton and 2 in Shrewsbury. 
The preventive inoculation has been applied to 78 head of 
cattle and 9 horses located on five different premises, and from 
the fact that our records show such a marked decrease in the 
number of cases from previous years we believe that our 
efforts in prevention have probably saved quite a few animals 
which have been exposed to the same conditions, pasturage 
and feed as those which have died. 

Reports of the existence of anthrax in four different towns 
proved upon investigation to be unfounded. In one case the 
cause of death was found to be a digestive disturbance. In 
another case the cause of death was malnutrition. On the 
cases reported from one of the four towns laboratory diagnosis 
was negative, and the specimens submitted from another town 
were too decomposed for a proper examination. 

Some of the symptoms of this disease so resemble those of 
hemorrhagic septicemia that a positive diagnosis can only be 
made by laboratory examination. It is therefore our custom 
in all cases reported to have such laboratory examination 
immediately made. 

No unusual prevalence of this disease has been known to 
exist this year in surrounding States, so that the quarantine 
order restricting shipments to Massachusetts has not been 
necessary. 

Blackleg, or symptomatic anthrax, also called quarter ill, is 
another disease which causes the death of large numbers of 
animals in different parts of the world, especially such as 
have not reached adult age. Young cattle are the animals 
generally attacked, but the disease has been found in some 
instances in sheep and goats. It is characterized by swelling, 
oedema, and emphysema of the muscles and subcutaneous 
tissues of the infected parts. Infection appears most commonly 
in the shoulder or hind quarter, and presents certain character- 
istic symptoms that are seldom mistaken for those of any 
other disease. The same necessity for yearly preventive treat- 
ment exists in the control of this disease as in that of anthrax. 



IN 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Preventive treatment is very successful, and although the num- 
ber of fatal cases of the disease in Massachusetts is very small 
compared with the mortality records of other sections of the 
country, we nevertheless are anxious to save as many animals 
as possible from its ravages. 

During the past year 17 animals have died from this disease 
on 13 different premises, and the preventive inoculation has 
been applied to 764 animals on 103 different premises in 36 
towns, as follows: — 









Premises. 








Premises. 


Adams, . . 1 


Northampton, . . 2 


Ashburnham, 








. 4 


Orange, 








. 6 


Ashby, 








. 10 


Pittsfield, '. 








1 


Ashfield, 








1 


Prescott, 








. 5 


Athol, . . 








. 3 


Princeton, . 








1 


Becket, 








3 


Rowe, . 








5 


Colrain, 








1 


Savoy, 








1 


Granville, . 








1 


. Shelburne, . 








o 


Great Barringtoi 


h 






5 


Southampton, 








2 


Harvard, 








2 


Sterling, 








2 


Hard wick, . 








1 


Townsend, . 








1 


Holyoke, 








3 


Tyringham, 








2 


Lee, 








2 


Warwick, . 








3 


Leicester, . 








3 


Washington, 








1 


Lenox, 








1 


Westhampton, 








1 


Littleton, . 








9 


Williamstown, 








3 


Montague, . 








5 


Winchendon, 








2 


New Marlboroug 


Jh, 






4 


Windsor, 








1 



Our records show that whereas the increase in the number 
of deaths from this disease in Massachusetts during the past 
year has been 10 animals, we have applied preventive inocu- 
lation to 603 more animals than were inoculated last year. 
This particular branch of the Department's work seems to be 
increasing more or less rapidly as cattle owners become more 
generally informed that their animals can be successfully pro- 
tected against the disease without interfering with their health 
or development. 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia. — This is a disease which seems to 
be increasingly prevalent each year, and has been diagnosed 
not only in Massachusetts cattle but also in swine, large num- 
bers of which have been found to be affected this year. Dif- 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 49 

ferential diagnosis is sometimes difficult in the field as between 
anthrax, blackleg and hemorrhagic septicemia, and a positive 
diagnosis in such cases can only be reached as the result of 
laboratory examination of specimens from the carcasses. 

Our records show that the disease has appeared in 16 head 
of cattle on premises in 6 different towns, — Ashby, Harvard, 
Lowell, Orange, Southbridge and Stur bridge. We have found 
the disease this year causing considerable loss among swine, 
and our attention has been directed in many instances to this 
class of animals on account of our active work in the sup- 
pression of hog cholera, as we are frequently called to herds 
supposed to be affected with cholera where a careful diagnosis 
proves the infection to be hemorrhagic septicemia. Treatment 
agairist this disease by inoculation is being applied at several 
different points, and a further reference to our work in this 
direction is made later in this report under the heading "Labo- 
ratory." This may be found on page 51. 

Actinomycosis is another disease classified in the law as con- 
tagious, a few cases of which are yearly brought to our atten- 
tion. Whether or not this disease is contagious according to 
the strict scientific meaning of the term is a question, but it 
is certainly transmissible from one animal to another if con- 
ditions are favorable, and therefore the Department deems it 
necessary to quarantine animals affected with it. In some 
instances it is allowable for the animals to be kept for the 
purpose of fattening and then released for slaughter only. 

Nine cases of actinomycosis have been reported to the De- 
partment during the year, 1 each in the city of Attleboro and 
the towns of Dudley, Lanesborough, Lee, Richmond, Ware- 
ham, West Brookfield, and 2 cases in the town of Plymouth. 
One case reported in 1916 has been killed during the past year 
in the town of Tisbury. Of the 9 cases reported in 1917, 
7 have already been killed and 2 have been released as having 
been cured. One case was found at the Brighton Stockyards 
in a cow brought in from the State of Maine, and the ani- 
mal was immediately slaughtered. 

Tuberculosis in Swine. — Cases of tuberculosis in swine are 
occasionally reported to us by slaughtering establishments, all 
the larger slaughtering concerns having been requested to re- 



50 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. , [Jan. 

port cases of this disease found at time of slaughter, as it 
generally happens that its source can be found among cattle 
on the premises where the swine have been kept, especially 
if they have been in close contact with the cattle, or have been 
fed on unpasteurized milk from tuberculous cattle. It is our 
custom upon receipt of report of this sort to cause an exami- 
nation to be made of the cattle on the premises where the 
swine have been kept. Fourteen such cases have been re- 
ported this year. 

Mange. — This very troublesome disease seems to have been 
much less prevalent in Massachusetts during the past year. 
In 1916, 449 head of cattle in 17 different herds were reported 
to this Department, whereas in 1917 only 157 head of cattle 
have been reported as affected with the disease, found on 18 
different premises, and a few horses on 3 different premises. 
The premises on which this disease in cattle has appeared are 
in Abington, Dartmouth, Duxbury, Grafton, Hanover, Hing- 
ham, Lexington, Lincoln, New Marlborough, Phillipston, West 
Newbury, Whitman and Williamstown, and the horses were 
found in the cities of Boston, Chelsea and Newton. 

Treatment of this disease is generally successful if the owner 
or attendant can be induced to faithfully carry out simple 
directions for local application and medicinal treatment, which 
treatment is inexpensive but somewhat inconvenient to apply. 

Foot-and-mouth disease has not appeared in Massachusetts 
during the past year, although we have had reports of its 
existence in the towns of Merrimac, Princeton and Westwood. 
Prompt investigation of these reports, however, proved that 
they were unfounded. 

Diseases of Sheep. — As there has evidently been quite an 
increase in the number of sheep kept in Massachusetts the 
past year, we have found that there has been a corresponding 
increase in reported cases of disease among them. Sheep are 
especially susceptible to diseases of a parasitic nature, and the 
one which seems to be the most prevalent is what is known 
as nodular disease. Cases of this disease have been reported 
from the towns of Auburn, Bedford, Blandford, Granville, 
Lincoln and Norwood. This disease is due to an intestinal 
parasite which causes serious loss through the death of many 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 51 

young animals, and also in the prevention of proper growth 
of others. 

The Department has frequently been called upon to make 
examination of animals supposed to be affected with disease 
of a contagious character, which upon thorough investigation 
has been found not to be the case. As we are anxious at all 
times, however, to be thoroughly informed as to an outbreak 
of contagious disease, we frequently make investigation in cases 
where the services of a private veterinarian should have been 
obtained, because of the non-contagious character of the disease. 
This investigation work has been frequently rendered upon 
application of citizens. 

Among the non-contagious diseases to which our attention 
has been called during the past year may be mentioned the 
following: acute indigestion, fistula, foot-rot, forage poisoning, 
lice, lung worm, neck ail, rheumatism, stomatitis, stomach 
worm, ulcerative vaginitis and sheep scab. 

Particular attention may be called to a case of tuberculosis 
in a horse in the town of Reading, diagnosis of which was 
made on post-mortem examination and subsequently confirmed 
in the laboratory. Tuberculosis in the horse is of such rare 
occurrence that it is worthy of particular record. 

The Laboratoky. 

During the year 71 specimens were submitted to the labo- 
ratory for examination and diagnosis. The majority of these 
were sent in during the latter part of the year, which would 
indicate that there will be an increase in this work during the 
coming year. Specimens were submitted from horses, cattle, 
sheep, swine, goats and rabbits; and in order to make diag- 
noses, bacteriological examinations, pathological examinations 
and animal inoculations have been resorted to. 

Inasmuch as commercial ophthalmic tuberculin which the 
Department had been using was not giving dependable results, 
it was decided that it would be advisable for the laboratory 
to do experimental work along this line, and at the same time 
to investigate the possibility of producing a tuberculin to be 
used for retests which would give more accurate results than 
the one which was being used. In August, therefore, the 



52 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

laboratory started the production of tuberculin for depart- 
mental use. Since that time 413 doses of special re test tuber- 
culin, 383 doses of ophthalmic tuberculin, and 260 doses of 
tuberculin as regularly used in the original test, have been 
furnished. It has been found that with this special retest 
tuberculin for subcutaneous use the results are much more 
accurate than with any previously used. The results as checked 
by post-mortem examinations are accurate in a larger per- 
centage of cases, and if a reaction occurs it is much more 
decisive and sharply defined than with other tuberculins. The 
ophthalmic tuberculin has given us considerably better results 
than commercial ophthalmic tuberculin, but we cannot depend 
upon it to the same degree as upon the subcutaneous retest 
tuberculin. However, with a combination of the two, accurate 
results are being obtained in nearly all cases. 

For some time past it has been apparent that hemorrhagic 
septicemia is increasing in frequency and is causing consider- 
able loss, particularly in swine. It is a rather common im- 
pression among live-stock sanitary authorities that this disease 
rarely or never exists in swine as an independent disease, but 
is always associated with hog cholera. To arrive at any con- 
clusion regarding this disease it first became necessary to de- 
termine whether or not outbreaks of it do occur when not 
associated with hog cholera. In this respect we were extremely 
fortunate, inasmuch as we had by the simultaneous method 
immunized the swine against hog cholera in the majority of 
the larger piggeries in the State, and we were thus in a posi- 
tion to study the disease when outbreaks occurred in such 
immune herds. During the past year nine such outbreaks have 
occurred. In 8 of the 9 hog cholera could be positively ex- 
cluded, as was proven by animal inoculation, cultures and 
filtration experiments. After being convinced that the disease 
did exist independently our next duty was to endeavor to 
control it. For this purpose we have used both living and 
killed cultures of Bacillus suisepticus. In all instances we have 
had better results with the use of living cultures than with 
killed. In 8 of the 9 outbreaks the losses were stopped and 
the outbreak controlled almost immediately after the inocu- 
lation of the animals with the living culture. In all of these 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 53 

cases the entire herd had been immunized against hog cholera 
by the simultaneous method, at periods varying from six 
months to two years previously. In the ninth outbreak the 
animals which were infected had received the "serum only" 
treatment, but not the simultaneous, inasmuch as they were 
too young for that. The case was not diagnosed by the labo- 
ratory, but by clinical symptoms and autopsy. Further in- 
vestigation when results were not satisfactory proved that the 
animals were very badly infested with lung worms, which 
rendered this case of very little value for the purpose of judging 
results. During the year we have produced a bacterial vaccine 
for more than 400 swine and 150 head of cattle. 

The following interesting points have arisen in our study 
of this disease : — 

1. We have never been able to reproduce the disease in 
cattle or swine with the blood from animals suffering from it, 
notwithstanding the fact that the same blood has given us 
pure cultures of the causative agent, and microscopic smears 
have shown the organism present in the blood in large numbers. 

2. In some cases we have been able to reproduce the disease 
by rabbit or guinea pig inoculations with this same blood, and 
in other cases this has not been possible. 

3. Pure cultures of Bacillus suisepticus and bovisepticus are 
extremely difficult to keep, and vary greatly in their pathoge- 
nicity. In some cases the cultures die out in five or six days, 
while in some others we have been able to make transfers as 
late as three months, and have found pathogenicity unat- 
tenuated. 

Considerable work has been done in attempting to make 
an immune serum for Bacillus suisepticus infection by hyper- 
immunizing cattle. To date, the results have been varied and 
not satisfactory. In some cases it has protected rabbits and 
guinea pigs, and in others it has failed to do so. Inasmuch 
as the results of the inoculation of these animals with pure 
cultures also vary, it is difficult to determine to what extent 
the immune serum should be discredited, and how far the 
cultures fail to reproduce the disease. Used on swine sick 
with hemorrhagic septicemia, the results have not been satis- 
factory. 



54 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

NecrobaciUosi* has been diagnosed by the laboratory in 11 

herds of swine and in 1 case of calves. In the case of calves 
it is found to form abscesses on the inner side of the cheek 
along the lower maxillary bone. In these abscesses Bacillus 
necropkorus was present in large numbers, and the animals 
showed symptoms of calf diphtheria. In swine the disease is 
practically never seen in the intestinal form, as reported in 
the west. When found in our garbage-fed herds it manifests 
itself by a necrotic condition of the feet or mouth or both, 
and does not cause a very heavy mortality. It is difficult to 
obtain pure cultures of this organism by culture, and it is 
usually necessary to resort to animal inoculation, making it 
difficult to carry stock cultures of this organism. Considerable 
work remains to be done along this line. 

Annual Inspection of Farm Animals and Premises. 

In compliance with a direct order of the Commissioner, 
issued in January of each year to the inspectors of animals of 
all towns and cities, a systematic inspection of all cattle, sheep, 
swine and goats, and of the conditions under which they are 
kept, is made. A date is set for the completion of this work, 
following which detailed reports must be submitted on blanks 
provided for the purpose. These reports when tabulated fur- 
nish a comprehensive survey of the health and sanitation of 
animals in Massachusetts kept for the production of food for 
human consumption. They form an important basis on which 
to formulate regulations for the control and eradication of 
contagious diseases among live stock, and are of direct interest 
in the study of certain public health problems. In addition 
to much information of importance which the Department de- 
rives from the tabulated report of the inspectors of animals, 
and uses in numberless ways in its work of control and eradi- 
cation of contagious disease, it furnishes the only correct 
"census" of animals in Massachusetts that is made. This in- 
formation is made use of by other State departments, and also 
by different associations and individuals interested either in 
dairying or the marketing of beef, pork or mutton, and by 
persons engaged in general agricultural operations. 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 55 

The following table is made up from the reports of the in- 
spectors of animals : — 

Total number of herds of cattle inspected, 28,582 

Number of herds containing not over 5 dairy cows, . . . 23,100 

Number of neat cattle inspected, 228,962 

Number of dairy cows inspected, 152,141 

Number of herds found clean and in good condition, . . . 28,132 

Number of stables inspected, 29,450 

Number of stables properly drained, 29,299 

Number of stables well ventilated, 29,009 

Number of stables sufficiently lighted, 28,711 

Number of stables found clean, 28,608 

Number of stables in which improvements were recommended, . 1,303 

Number of herds of swine inspected, 10,573 

Number of swine inspected, 81,351 

Number of herds of swine garbage-fed, 2,140 

Number of swine garbage-fed, 47,628 

Number of sheep inspected, 13,875 

Number of goats inspected, 1,307 

Generally speaking, the work of inspection is efficiently 
attended to, and has the practical result of rapidly correcting 
unsatisfactory conditions of stabling and of eliminating diseased 
animals. 

The service rendered by local inspectors of animals in the 
many directions where they are available is of very great aid 
in the Department's work. They are in many instances the first 
officials notified of outbreak or existence of contagious disease, 
and much depends upon their alertness and prompt attention 
to the duty of quarantine and early report to the Department. 
Were it not for efficient service by them, much valuable time 
would be lost in many instances. Their service in reporting 
arrival, and in subsequently identifying interstate animals in 
accordance with our regulations, enables us to more promptly 
attend to the necessary duties in connection with such cases. 

From time to time additional inspections are ordered at 
places where contagious disease has been found, and where the 
original recommendations for improvement of sanitation have 
not been carried out. These additional inspections are made 
by Department agents when the inspectors of animals for any 
reason have not been able to bring about the improvements 
necessary. 



5G 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Financial Statement. 

Appropriation for the salary of the Commissioner, chapter 40, 

Special Acts of 1917, . 
Total expenditure, ..... 



Appropriation for clerical assistance and contin- 
gent expenses, chapter 40, Special Acts of 1917, 

Brought forward from 1916 appropriation, . 

Credit on account of temporary increase, 

Amount forwarded from extraordinary expenses, 
Total amount appropriated, 
Expended during the year for the following 
purposes : — 

Salaries of clerks and stenographers, 

Books, .... 

Express and messenger service, 

Extra clerical service, 

Postage, .... 

Printing report, 

Other printing, . 

Telephone and telegrams, . 

Stationery and office supplies, 

Typewriters, 

Expenses of the Commissioner, 

Sundries, .... 

Total expenditure, 
Unexpended balance, 



. 


$3,500 00 


. 


3,500 00 


$9,650 00 




6 82 




146 50 


- 


. 894 00 






$10,697 32 




$5,829 96 




128 64 




241 73 




252 70 




788 72 




139 03 




1,137 77 




783 15 




631 55 




163 00 




377 53 




69 45 





$10,543 23 
154 09 



$10,697 32 



Appropriation for the extermination of contagious diseases among 
domestic animals, chapter 40, Special Acts of 1917, 
Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

1,168 head of cattle condemned and killed on ac- 
count of tuberculosis in 1914, 1915, 1916 and 
1917, paid for in 1917, 

254 horses condemned and killed on account 
glanders and farcy in 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916 
and 1917, paid for in 1917, . 

Services of regular agents, .... 

Services of per diem agents, 

Labor hired, ...... 

Traveling and other expenses of agents, 

Veterinary supplies, ..... 

Expenses of killing and burial, 

Ear-tags, punches, etc., .... 

Laboratory and experimental expenses, 

Expense of travel allowed inspectors of animals, 

Quarantine expenses, ..... 

Sundries, ....... 

Total expenditure, .... 
Unexpended balance, .... 



$146,000 00 



$42,816 39 
f 


12,962 


00 


31,410 


89 


10,875 


60 


395 


75 


17,964 


70 


112 


23 


152 


00 


1,218 


87 


2,952 


49 


475 


29 


4 00 


195 46 


$121,535 67 


24,464 


33 




— $146,000 00 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 57 

The average price paid for condemned cattle for the year 
was $36.65. 

There has been received during the year from the sale of 
hides and carcasses of condemned animals $1,209.87, and for 
the testing of cattle for non-resident owners $3,002.26, a total 
amount of $4,212.13. 

Claims for 85 head of cattle condemned and killed as tuber- 
culous during the year remain unsettled, to be paid for on 
proof of claims, the appraised value of which amounts to 
$3,014. 

Claims for 32 horses condemned and killed during the year 
because affected with glanders remain unsettled, to be paid 
for on proof of claims, the allowance for which under the law 
will amount "to $1,571. 

Respectfully submitted, 

LESTER H. HOWARD, 

Commissioner of Animal Industry.